International Dispute Settlement

‘The way to change the game is to change the frame’ – William Ury (Director of the Global Negotiation Project at Harvard University).

‘Appreciate their point of view.  Understand it. It is very important to appreciate the way they see it. Even if you don’t agree, say that it merits serious consideration. Don’t say that they are wrong. Appreciate their self-esteem. Acknowledge that the other person has been heard. Be prepared to argue their case better than they can before you answer it.’

The late Professor Roger Fisher (Roger Fisher (academic) – Wikipedia) in a two hour conversation with Carl Islam at Harvard Law School during a research visit as a Scholar from King’s College London to Harvard University in April 2002.

‘In the heat of a dispute it is easy for scholars and statesmen alike to forget that, though life can only be understood backwards, it must be lived forwards.’ (‘Sending Them Home – Some Observations on the Relocation of Cultural Objects from UK Museum Collections’ by the late Professor Norman Palmer, Art Antiquity And Law, Vol 5, Issue 4, December 2000, page 353).

The working title of my next book, which I plan to research and write from 2025 onwards, is ‘International Dispute Settlement.

My aim is to write a practical Handbook for Lawyers, Diplomats, NGO’s, Mediators, and students, about the Legal and Diplomatic methods available, and organisations used, to resolve disputes between state parties, including: negotiation; mediation; inquiry; conciliation; arbitration; and litigation in both the International Court of Justice in the Hague (‘ICJ’), and in the English Courts.

The book will also explore:

(i) the existence of ‘fiduciary’ duties owed by states under International Law to both their own people and to humanity, i.e. to the international community as a whole – the ‘Dual Commission’ principle; and

(ii) the intersection and nexus between jus cogens and erga omnes under International Humanitarian Law, including the absolute prohibition against genocide.

‘Verdross argued that states bore an imperative duty under international law to undertake certain moral tasks. Lauterpacht asserted that peremptory norms derive their unique legal authority from two interrelated sources – international morality and general principles of state practice. In Lauterpacht’s view, “overriding principles of international law,” [which in the author’s submission includes a duty by an occupier to protect ancient public monuments located in the occupied territory – subject to the doctrine of military necessity], “may be regarded as constituting principles of international public order (ordre international public). These principles … may be expressive of rules of international morality so cogent that an international tribunal would consider them forming a part of those principles of law generally recognised by civilised nations which the ICJ is bound to apply [under] it statute.” … Kant’s theory of international law ultimately relies on his social contract theory of the state. [The] theory we defend is that the state and its institutions are fiduciaries of the people subject to state power, and therefore a state’s claim to sovereignty, properly understood, relies on its fulfilment of a multifaceted and overarching fiduciary obligation to respect the agency and dignity of the people subject to state power. One of the requirements of this obligation – is compliance with jus cogens. Put another way, the fiduciary principle governs the relationship between the state and its people, and this principle requires the state to comply with peremptory norms. … Fiduciary relations arise from circumstances in which one party (the fiduciary) holds discretionary power of an administrative nature over the legal or practical interests of another party (the beneficiary), and the beneficiary is  peculiarly vulnerable to the fiduciary’s power in the sense that she is unable, either as a matter of fact or law, to exercise the entrusted power. … The fiduciary’s power is purposive in that it is held or conferred for limited purposes, such as furthering exclusively the equitable interests of a trust’s beneficiary.  And finally, the power is institutional in that it must be situated within a legally permissible institution.  … The law seeks to dissolve rather than regulate relationships of incorrigible domination. Beneficiaries are particularly vulnerable in that, once in a fiduciary relationship, they generally are unable to protect themselves or their entrusted interests against an abuse of fiduciary power. … Locke had famously asserted that legislative power is “only a fiduciary power to act for certain ends” and that “there remained still in the people a supreme power to remove or alter the legislators, when they find the legislative act contrary to the trust reposed in them. In other words, popular sovereignty denotes that the state sovereign powers belong to the people, and so those powers are held in trust by the rulers on condition that they be used for the people’s benefit. Popular sovereignty thus implies that the state and its institutions are fiduciaries of the people, for their justification rests exclusively on the authority they enjoy the governance of the people. … [It] is an entity’s assumption of state powers, not de jure statehood per se, that triggers the fiduciary principle. Any entity that assumes unilateral administrator power over individuals bears a fiduciary obligation to honour the basic demands of dignity, including the peremptory norms of international jus cogens. … [Implicit] within the state’s obligation to secure legal order is another independently sufficient condition for the identification of peremptory norms: the rule of law. … Public corruption offends the state subject fiduciary relation irrespective of whether the corrupt acts are large or small in scope: a low-level public official who … Accepts a petty bride violates the peremptory norm against corruption, just as a head of state violates jus cogens by draining the state treasury for private gain. The prohibition against corruption thus illustrates the important principle that the scope of jus cogens is not limited exclusively to acts such as military aggression. … Violations of peremptory norms .. are necessarily wrongful and legally impermissible on any scale. …

Legal scholars have traced the fiduciary concept as far back as the Code of Hammurabi in ancient Mesopotamia … and have shown that concepts of fiduciary obligation informs not only Roman law … But also Islamic law. … Indeed, the modern Anglo-American law of trust owes a considerable debt to the waqf from Islamic law – an endowment created by a donor for use by designated beneficiaries and under the administration of the trustee – which was introduced to England by Franciscan friars returning from the Crusades in the 13th century.’ (Criddle, Evan J. & Evan Fox-Decent A Fiduciary Theory of Jus Cogens, The Yale Journal of International Law (2009) Vol 34: 331-387).

States can respond to breaches of obligations ‘erga omnes’ by instituting proceedings in the ICJ. Where under International Law a crime, e.g. genocide is a ‘jus cogens’ violation, there can be no legal justification whatsoever.

So, at trial:

(i) ‘erga omnes’ – which on the factual matrix may arise out of a breach of ‘fiduciary duty’; and

(ii) ‘jus cogens’,

are powerful arguments in discharging the burden proof, because if the other threshold issues including ‘actus reus’ and ‘intent’ are proven, there is no defence.

See also the material assembled at

Research Bibliography

Abelow, Benjamin (2022) How the West Brought War to Ukraine: Understanding How U.S. and NATO Policies Led to Crisis, War, and the Risk of Nuclear Catastrophe Paperback, Siland Press.

Aksenova, Marina (2019) Complicity in International Criminal Law, Hart Publishing.

Allison, Graham (2018) Destined for War: can America and China escape Thucydides’ Trap?, Scribe UK.

Amerasinghe, Chittharanjan F. (2008) Diplomatic Protection, Oxford University Press.

Aust, Anthony (2005) Handbook Of International Law, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press.

Aust, Anthony (2013) Modern Treaty Law and Practice, Third Edition, Cambridge University Press.

Bailliet, Cecilia M. (editor) (2020) Research Handbook on International Law and Peace, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Barston, R.P. (2013) Modern Diplomacy, Fourth Edition, Pearson.

Baud, Jacques (2024) The Russian Art Of War – How The West Led Ukraine To Defeat, Max Milo.

Baud, Jacques (2024) Operation Al-Aqsa Flood – The Defeat Of The Vanquisher, Max Milo.

Bayne, Nicholas and Stephen Woolcock (2011) The New Economic Diplomacy – Decision-Making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations, Third Edition, Ashgate.

Bell, Christine (2008) On The Law Of Peace, Oxford University Press.

Besong , Brian (2018) An Introduction to Ethics: A Natural Law Approach, Cascade Books.

Besson, Samantha & John Tasioulas (2013) The Philosophy of International Law, Oxford University Press.

Boas, Gideon (2012) Public International Law – Contemporary Principles and Perspectives, Edwar Elgar.

Boogaard, Jeroen van den (2023) Proportionality in International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge University Press.

Bowen, Jeremy (2022) The Making of the Modern Middle East: A Personal History, Picador.

Bowling, Daniel (Editor) & David Hoffman (Editor) (2003), Bringing Peace Into the Room: How the Personal Qualities of the Mediator Impact the Process of Conflict Resolution, Jossey-Bass.

Blumenthal, Max (2020) The Management of Savagery: How America’s National Security State Fuelled the Rise of Al Qaeda, Isis, and Donald Trump. Verso Books.

Carstens, Anne-Marie & Elizabeth Varner (2020), Intersections In International Cultural Heritage Law, Oxford University Press.

Carter, Jennifer (2022). Human Rights Museums: Critical Tensions Between Memory and Justice, Routledge.

Carter, President Jimmy (2007) Palestine Peace Not Apartheid, Scribner.

Carty, Anthony (2017) Philosophy of International Law, Second Edition, Edinburgh University Press.

Chechi, Allesandro (2014) The Settlement Of International Cultural Heritage Disputes, Oxford University Press.

Cook, Stephen A. & Martin S. Indyk (2022) The Case for a New U.S.-Saudi Strategic Compact, Council on Foreign Relations.

Clack, Timothy & Mark Dunkley (2022) Cultural Heritage in Modern Conflict, Past, Propaganda, Parade, Routledge.

Clark, Christopher (2013) The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914, Penguin.

Cloke, Kenneth (2019) The Crossroads of Conflict – A Journey Into the Heart of Dispute Resolution,  Goodmedig Press.

Cox, Michael (2022) Agonies of Empire – American Power from Clinton to Biden, Bristol University Press.

Criddle, Evan J. & Evan Fox-Decent (2016) Fiduciaries of Humanity – How International Law Constitutes Authority, Oxford University Press.

Criddle, J., Evan Fox-Decent, Andrew S. Gold, Sung Hui Kim & Paul B.Miller (2018), Fiduciary Government, Cambridge University Press.

Criddle, Evan J., Paul B. Miller and Robert H. Sitkoff (2019) The Oxford Handbook of Fiduciary Law, Oxford University Press.

Crisp, Roger (2015) The Oxford Handbook of The History Of Ethics, Oxford University Press.

Davis, Daniel, Lt.Col (2020) Eleventh Hour in 2020 America: How America’s foreign policy got jacked up – and how the next Administration can fix it, Independently published. See also:

de Chazournes, Laurence Boisson, Marcello G. Kohen & Jorge E. Vinuales (2013) Diplomatic and Judicial Means of Dispute Settlement, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno (1981), The War Trap, Yale University Press.

Denza, Eileen (2018) Diplomatic Law – Commentary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Oxford University Press.

Djefal, Christian (2016) Static and Evolutive Treaty Interpretation, Cambridge University Press.

Drazewska, Berenika (2021) Military Necessity in International Cultural Heritage Law, Brill Nijhoff.

Dromgoole, Sarach (2014) Underwater Cultural Heritage and International Law, Cambridge University Press.

Durbach, Andrea and Lucas Lixinski (2019) Heritage, Culture And Rights – Challenging Legal Discourses, Hart.

Duke, Annie (2018) Thinking in Bets, Portfolio Penguin.

Erakat, Noura (2019) Justice For Some – Law and the Question of Palestine, Stanford University Press.

Espósito, Carlos and Kate Parlett, Editors (2023) The Cambridge Companion to the International Court of Justice, Cambridge University Press.

Esterhuyse, Willie (2012) Endgame: Secret Talks and the End of Apartheid, Tafelberg.

Failat, Yanal Abul (2022) Outer Space Law: Legal Policy and Practice 2nd ed, Globe Law and Business.

Feinstein, Andrew (2012) The Shadow World: Inside the Global Arms Trade, Penguin. 

Feltham, Ralph G. (1998) Diplomatic Handbook, Eight Edition, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Fentiman, Richard (2010) International Commerical Litigation, Oxford University Press.

Finkelstein, Norman G. (2018), Gaza – An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom, University  of California Press.

Fisher, Roger & Scott Brown (1988) Getting Together – Building Relationships As We Negotiate, Penguin Books.

Fisher, Roger, Elizabeth Kopelman & Andrea Kuper Schneider (1994) Beyond Machiavelli – Tools For Coping With Conflict, Penguin Books.

Fisher, Roger & Daniel Shapiro (2007) Building Agreement – Using Emotions As You Negotiate, RH Business Books.

Fleck, Dieter, Editor (2021) The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law 4th ed, Oxford University Press.

Francioni, Francesco and Ana Filipa Vrdoljak, Editors (2020) The Oxford Handbook of International Cultural Heritage Law, Oxford University Press.

Fox-Decent, Evan (2011) Sovereignty’s Promise – The State as Fiduciary, Oxford University Press.

Freedman, Sir Lawrence (2013) Strategy – A History, Oxford University Press.

Freedman, Sir Lawrence (2022) Command: The Politics of Military Operations from Korea to Ukraine,  Allen Lane.

Freeman, Chas W. (1997) Arts of Power: Statecraft and Diplomacy, United States Institute of Peace Press.

French, Duncan, Matthew Saul and Nigel D. White, Editors 2012) International Law and Dispute Settlement – New Problems and Techniques, Hart.

Fukuyama, Francis (2011) The Origins Of Political Order – From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution, Profile Books.

Fukuyama, Francis (2015) Political Order And Political Decay – From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy, Profile Books.

Fukuyama, Francis (2022) Liberalism And Its Discontents, Profile Books.

Gardiner, Richard (2015) Treaty Interpretation, Oxford University Press.

Goold, Benjamin J. & Liora Lazarus (2019) Security And Human Rights, Hart Publishing.

Gozzi, Gustavo (2019) Rights and Civilizations – A History and Philosophy of International Law, Cambridge University Press.

Grant, Adam (2021) Think Again – The Power Of Knowing Waht You Don’t Know, Penguin Books.

Grando, Michelle T. (2009) Evidence, Proof, and Fact-Finding in WTO Dispute Settlement, Oxford University Press.

Gurtov, Mel (2020) America in Retreat: Foreign Policy under Donald Trump (World Social Change), Rowman & Littlefield (23 Sept. 2020).

Sheehan, Neil (1998) A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam, Pimlico.

Halberstam, David (1993) The Best and the Brightest, Ballantine Books.

Hazan, Pirre (2024) Negotiating with the Devil: Inside the World of Armed Conflict Mediation, C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.

Herman, Alexander (2021) Restitution – The Return of Cultural Artefacts, Sotheby’s Institute of Art.

Herman, Alexander (2023) The Pathenon Marbles Dispute, Institute of Art & Law.

Hollis, Duncan B. (2012) The Oxford Guide to Treaties, Oxford University Press.

Hughes-Wilson, Colonel John (2023) Military Intelligence Blunders, JB.

Indyk, Martin (2021) Master of the Game: Henry Kissinger and the Art of Middle East Diplomacy, Knopf Books for Young Readers.

Iverson, Jens (2021) Jus Post Bellum: The Rediscovery, Foundations, and Future of the Law of Transforming War into Peace, Brill Nijhoff.

Jackson, Miles (2015) Complicity in International Law, Oxford University Press.

Jervis, Robert (2017) Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton University Press.

Jervis, Robert (2017) How Statesmen Think – The Psychology of International Politics, Princeton University Press.

Kahneman, Daniel (2011) Thinking Fast And Slow, Allen Lane.

Karmi, Ghada (2023) One State – The Only Democratic Future for Palestine-Israel, Pluto Press.

Kennan, George.F (2012) American Diplomacy, The University of Chicago Press.

Khalidi, Rashid (2020) The Hundred Years’ War On Palestine – A History of Settler Colonial Conquest and Resistance, Profile Books.

Kim, Jihon (2022) Non-State Actors in the Protection of Cultural Heritage: An Analysis on Their Rights, Obligations, and Roles, Springer-Verlag.

Kissinger, Henry (1957), (2013 update) A World Restored – Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace 1812-22, Echo Point Books & Media LLC.

Kissinger, Henry (2022) Leadership: Six Studies in World Strategy, Allen Lane.

Koffler, Rebekah (2022) Putin’s Playbook: Russia’s Secret Plan to Defeat America, Regnery Gateway.

Kolb, Robert (2016) Theory of International Law, Bloomsbury.

Kolb, Robert (2017) Peremptory International Law Jus Cogens – A General Inventory, Bloomsbury.

Kolb, Robert (2017) The Law Of Treaties, Edward Elgar.

Koopmans, Sven M.G. (2008) Diplomatic Dispute Settlement – The Use of Inter-State Conciliation, T.M.C Asser Press.

Koopmans, Sven M.G. (2018) Negotiating Peace – A Guide To The Practice, Politics, And Law Of international Mediation, Oxford University Press.

Laderman, Charlie and Brendan Simms (2017) Donald Trump – The Making Of A World View, I.B. Tauris.

Lafollette, Hugh (2010) The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics, Oxford University Press.

Lammy, David (2020) Tribes: A Search for Belonging in a Divided Society, Constable.

Lanovov, Victor (2019) Complicity and its Limits in the Law of International Responsibility, Hart Publishing.

Leroux-Martin (2014) Diplomatic Counterinsurgency – Lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambridge University Press.

Levinger, Matthew (2013) Conflict Analysis – Understanding Causes, Unlocking Solutions, United States Institute of Peace.

Luttwak, Edward N (2016) Coup d’État: A Practical Handbook, Revised Edition, Harvard University Press; 2nd edition (8 April 2016).

MacGregor, Douglas (2023) Margin of Victory: Five Battles that Changed the Face of Modern War, Naval Institute Press.

MacIntyre, Alasdair (2001) Whose Justice? Which Rationality?, Duckworth.

MacIntyre, Alasdair (2022) After Virtue, Bloosmbury.

Mackinder, Sir Halford (2020) The Geographical Pivot of History, Cosimo Classics.

Malhotra, Deepak & Max H. Bazerman (2008) Negotiation Genius, Harvard Business School, Bantam Books.

Malhotra, Deepak (2016) Negotiating The Impossible – How To Break Deadlocks And Resolve Ugly Conflcts (Without Money or Muscle), Harvard Business School, Berrett-Kohler Publishers, Inc.

Malik, Kenan (2014) The Quest for a Moral Compass: A Global History of Ethics, Atlantic Books.

Malik, Kenan (2023) Not So Black and White: A History of Race from White Supremacy to Identity Politics, Hurst Publishers.

Martin, Mike (2018) Why We Fight, C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.

Masalha, Nur (2022) Palestine: A Four Thousand Year History, I.B. Tauris.

Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt (2008) The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Mearsheimer, John J. (2014) The Tragedy Of Great Power Politics (Updated Edition), Norton.

Mearsheimer, John J. (2019) The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities (Henry L. Stimson Letures),Yale University Press.

Mearsheimer, John J. (2023) & Sebastian Rosato How States Think: The Rationality of Foreign Policy, Yale University Press.

Merrill, John and Eric De Brabandere (2022) Merrill’s International Dispute Settlement, Cambridge University Press.

Meyer, Thomas, Jose de Sales Marques & Marion Telo (2021) Towards a New Multilateralism – Cultural Divergence and Political Convergence?, Routledge.

Milton, Patrick, Michael Axworthy and Brendan Simms (2018) Towards A Westphalia for the Middle East,C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.

Mitchell J. George & Alon Sachar (2016) A Path To Peace – A Brief History of Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations and a Way Forward in the Middle East, Simon & Schuster.

Natziger, James A.R., and Robert Kirkwood Paterson (2014) Handbook on the Law of Cultural Heritage and International Trade, Edward Elgar.

Odon, Daniel Ovo (2023) Armed Conflict and Human Rights Law: Protecting Civilians and International Humanitarian Law, Routledge.

Osthagen, Andreas (2022) Ocean Geopolitics: Marine Resources, Maritime Boundary Disputes and the Law of the Sea, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Omand, David (2020) How Spies Think – Ten Lessons in Intelligence, Penguin Viking.

Omand, David (2023) How To Survive A Crisis – Lessons in Resilience and Avoiding Disaster, Penguin Viking.

O’Keefe, Patrick J. (2014) Shipwrecked heritage – A Commentary On The UNESCO Convention On Underwater Cultural Heritage, Second Edition, Institute of Art & Law.

O’Keefe, Patrick J. (2017) Protecting Cultural Objects: Before And After 1970, Institute of Art & Law.

Olsaretti, Serena, Editor (2018) The Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice, Oxford University Press.

Pappe, Ilan (2007) The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, Oneworld Publications.

Pappe, Ilan (2017) Ten Myths About Israel, Verso.

Parsi,Triti (2017) Losing an Enemy: Obama, Iran, and the Triumph of Diplomacy, Yale University Press.

Peak, Thomas (2021) Westphalia From Below: Humanitarian Intervention and the Myth of 1648, C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.

Peled, Miko (2016) The General’s Son: Journey of an Israeli in Palestine, Just World Books; Second edition.

Petric, Ernest (2013) Foreign Policy – From Conception to Diplomatic Practice, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Phillips, Christopher (2024) Battleground: 10 Conflicts that Explain the New Middle East, Yale University Press.

Pirie, Fernanda (2021), The Rule of Laws: A 4000-year Quest to Order the World, Profile Books.

Powell, Jonathan (2014), Talking To Terrorists – How to end armed conflicts, Vintage.

Ramsbotham, Oliver, Tom Woodhouse & Hugh Miall (2021) Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Fourth Edition, Polity.

Randolph, Paul (2016) The Psychology of Conflict, Bloomsbury.

Retter, Mark and Andrea Varga (editors) (2021) International Law and Peace Settlements, Cambridge University Press.

Reus-Smit, Christian & Duncan Snidal (2008) The Oxford Handbook of International Relations, Oxford University Press.

Richmond, Oliver P. (2022)  The Grand Design: The Evolution of the International Peace Architecture, Oxford University Press USA.

Roberts, Sir Ivor (2018) Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, Seventh Edition, Oxford University Press.

Roodt, Christa (2015) Private International Law, Art and Cultural Heritage, Edward Elgar.

Ross, Dennis (2004) The Missing Peace: The Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace,St Martin’s Press.

Rudd, Kevin (2022) The Avoidable War: The Dangers of a Catastrophic Conflict between the US and Xi Jinping’s China, Public Affairs.

Ruys, Tom and Nicolas Angelet with Luco Ferro, Editors (2019) The Cambridge Handbook of Immunites And International Law, Cambridge University Press.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2013) To Move The World: JFK’s Quest for Peace, Bodley Head.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2020)  A New Foreign Policy – Beyond American Exceptionalism, Columbia Uinversity Press.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2020)  The Ages of Globalization – Geography, Technology and Institutions, Columbia Uinversity Press.

Sakwa, Richard (2023) The Lost Peace – How the West Failed to Prevent a Second Cold War, Yale University Press.

Saul, Ben & Dapo Akande (2020) The Oxford Guide To International Humanitarian Law, Oxford University Press.

Shafer-Landau, Russ (2013) Ethical Theory – An Anthology, Wiley-Blackwell.

Shapiro, Daniel (2017) Negotiating the Non-negotiable, Penguin Books.

Shirk, Susan L (2022) Overreach: How China Derailed Its Peaceful Rise, OUP USA.

Shlaim, Avi (2014) The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab WorldPenguin.

Simms, Brendan and D.J.B Trim 2011) Humanitarian Intervention, Cambridge University Press.

Singer, Peter (1993) A Companion To Ethics, Blackwell Publishing.

Smith, Retired General Sir Rupert (2005) The Utility of Force – The Art of War in the Modern World, Penguin Books.

Stewart, Rory & Gerald Knaus (2012) Can Intervention Work?, W.W. Norton & Company.

Stone, Douglas, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen (2000) Difficult Conversations, Penguin Books.

Strasser, Freddie & Paul Randolph (2004), Mediation – A Psychological Insight into Conflict Resolution, Contunuum.

Tams, Christian J. & Antonios Tzanakopoulos (2012), Basic Documents on The Settlement Of International Disputes, Hart Publishing.

Tan, Floris (2023) The Duty to Investigate in Situations of Armed Conflict: An Examination under International Humanitarian Law, International Human Rights Law, and their Interplay, Brill Nijhoff.

Thouless R.H. & C.R. Thouless (1930) Straight & Crooked Thinking, Hodder Education.

Torremans, Paul and James J. Fawcett, Editors (2017) Cheshire, North & Fawcett – Private International Law, Fifteenth Edition, Oxford University Press.

Tsagourias, Nicholas and Alasdair Morrison (2023) International Humanitarian Law – Cases, Materials And Commentary, Cambridge University Press.

Turner, Catherine (Editor) & Mark Wahlisch (Editor) (2021) Rethinking Peace Mediation: Challenges of Contemporary Peacemaking Practice, Bristol University Press.

Ury, William (1993) Getting Past No – Negotiating In Difficult Situations, Bantam Books.

Ury, William (2024) Possible – How We Survive (and Thrive) in an Age of Conflict, Harper Business.

Ury, William (1999) The Third Side – Why We Fight And How We Can Stop, Penguin Books.

Voss, Chris with Tahl Raz (2016) Never Split The Difference – Negotiating as if your life depended on it, RH Business Books.

Ward, Alexander (2024) The Internationalists: The Fight to Restore American Foreign Policy After Trump, Portfolio. 

Walker, Stephen (2021) Mediation Behaviour – Why We Act Like We do, Bloomsbury Professional.

Walker, Stephen (2024) Digital Mediation, Bloomsbury Professional.

Wilde, Ralph (2014) International Territorial Administration – How Trusteeship and the Civilizing Mission Never Went Away, Oxford University Press.

Wilson, Martin (2022) Art Law And Business Of Art, Second Edition, Edward Elgar Publishing.

Yarwood, Lisa (2012) State Accountability under International Law – Holding states accountable for a breach of jus cogens norms, Routledge.

Zhong, Hui (2018) China, Cultural Heritage And International Law, Routledge.

Zwier, Paul.J. (2013) Principled Negotiation And Mediation In The International Arena, Cambridge University Press.